Camelid brucellosis: a review

Published Date
Journal
Scientific Technical Review
Citation
33(3):839-57
DOI
10.20506/rst.33.3.2322
Authors
Wernery U
Abstract

Camel brucellosis has been diagnosed in all camel-rearing countries except Australia. In many countries the infection is on the rise in Old World camels (OWCs) due to the uncontrolled trade of live animals. Knowledge of camelid brucellosis has increased over the last decade through field investigations, experimental infection trials and comprehensive laboratory testing. Infection with Brucella melitensis is frequent in OWCs and rare with B. abortus. New World Camels rarely contract brucellosis. In East African countries the seroprevalence of brucellosis can reach 40% (herd level) and depends on the management system. The highest incidence is found when camels are kept together with infected small ruminants. Only a combination of serological methods can detect all serological reactors. Culturing the pathogen is still the preferred test method, although several assays based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed.