Purpose: To review the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment modalities, and prognosis of Bartonella-associated neuroretinitis.
Methods: This is a narrative review on Bartonella-associated neuroretinitis including general and ophthalmological aspects of the disease. A comprehensive literature review between January 1950 and September 2018 was conducted in PubMed database. Epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis were reviewed.
Results: Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a worldwide distributed systemic infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) which is usually transmitted to humans through contact with infected cats. Ocular manifestations of CSD are diverse, with neuroretinitis and superficial retinal infiltrates being the most common and typical manifestations. Neuroretinitis typically presents as optic disc edema with a partial or complete macular star in association with mild vitritis. Macular star may be absent at the initial presentation, becoming evident 1-2 weeks after the onset of optic disc edema. Diagnosis of CSD is confirmed by reliable laboratory tests. Neuroretinitis usually has a self-limited course. Antibiotic therapy is required for severe systemic disease and vision-threatening ocular involvement. The adjunctive use of oral corticosteroids may further improve the visual outcome.
Conclusions: The diagnosis of Bartonella-associated neuroretinitis is based on typical clinical findings and positive serology. The prognosis is usually favorable in immunocompetent individuals.
Keywords: Bartonella henselae; Cat scratch disease; Neuroretinitis; Optic neuritis; Serology.